Myanmar Geography

Myanmar Geography


Located in Southeast Asia, bordering to the north with China, to the south with the Andaman Sea to the east with Laos and Thailand and to the west with India, Bangladesh and the Bay of Bengal, the Union of Myanmar is primarily a horizon of Transition. Its position in monsoon Asia constitutes a point of intersection between two disparate geographical areas of South Asia: the Indochina peninsula., which constitutes the central axis of Southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent, center of radiation of South Asia.


The region, with an approximate surface area of about 676,000 km², encompasses a central area consisting of the wide depression crossed by the Irawadi River and the delta formed by it when it empties into the Bay of Bengal. As a whole, its general features constitute a generally flat strip oriented from north to south, with mountain ranges that close it to the west, formed by the Patkai and Chins mountains, and the Arakan coastal chain, to which must be added the wide Shan plateau, crossed by the Saluén river, frequently embedded in narrow valleys and gorges.


Regarding the climate of the region, it can be defined as tropical monsoon, but the fragmentation of the relief produces a diversity of local climates. Consequently, the vegetation in mountain areas, where abundant rainfall occurs, is almost impenetrable tropical forest, while in drier areas the land is more devoid of vegetation cover. It has three different seasons, a sweltering summer (March – May), the wet monsoon season (May – October), and a dry and cold winter (November – February). In the summer, temperatures average around 30 ºC during the day and drop at night; the winter average is 25ºC during the day and 15ºC at night. According to bridgat, the coastal areas are more humid and cooler than the rest of the country. Considering the weather conditions, the best time to visit the country is between November and February, when the rain and heat are less. The low season in the country is during the months of May, June and September.

Territorial organization

Political-administrative organization of Burma. It is organized into seven divisions and seven states, based on the dominant ethnic groups.

  • States (pyi):

1.Rahine State (formerly Arakan) 2.Chin State 3.Kachin State 4.Shan State 5.Kayah State (formerly Karenni) 6.Kayin State (formerly Karen) 7.Mon State

  • Divisions (taing):
  1. Sagaing Division 2. Tanintharyi Division (formerly Tenasserim) 3. Ayeyarwady Division (formerly Irrawady) 4. Yangon Division (formerly Rangoon) 5. Bago Division (formerly Pegu) 6. Magway Division 7. Mandalay


Agrobusiness operation

Myanmar is a predominantly agricultural country, contributing this activity to 40% of the gross product and standing out among its production, rice, sugar cane, vegetables, legumes, fruits and peanuts. Although its population is relatively small compared to that of neighboring countries, intensive exploitation of the Irawadi Delta produces more food than it consumes, allowing the export of significant amounts of rice. Other commercial products grown in the central Irawadi valley are cotton, millet and peanuts, among others, although these are produced by small subsistence farms, as opposed to the commercialized rice fields of the delta.


The importance of logging of stands jungles of Myanmar for its economic value the wood of teak and plantation tree of rubber. In the lower banks and islands of Irawadi, covered by the waters during the monsoon floods, they are cultivated in a traditional way, constituting gardens of very high productivity. Sugarcane plantations abound in the lower Sittang valley.

Another resources

Regarding the livestock activity, cattle and pigs are economically important and, on the other hand, the abundant fishing obtained by traditional methods in the Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea.

The mineral deposits, although these are not abundant, oil, natural gas and coal are obtained in moderate quantities, and minerals such as tin, zinc, lead and tungsten are also present.

The exploitation of subsoil resources is in the hands of foreign capital, mainly Japanese. On the other hand, China has huge investments in Myanmar. It is also an important country for Beijing’s energy strategy in the coming years. It is in the center of what the Chinese call the ” pearl necklace ” of the Indian Ocean, in the Straits of Malacca, where most of the oil imported by China and almost all of its exports passes.

The food and textile industries are the most widespread, with Myanmar having few facilities of a heavy type: fertilizers, cement, various metallurgy.

Myanmar Geography