Many peoples of the north-east and north-west of the peninsula, from Epirus to Thessaly and Macedonia, far from the centers of cultural radiation, occupied exclusively in agriculture and pastoralism, preserved very primitive customs and traditions. Others, like those of Laconia, after an initial period of cultural flourishing, had to give it up, giving themselves an iron military constitution to preserve the fruits of their territorial conquests. On the other hand, there were lands, close to the sea, and facing east, and supplied with raw materials for the manufacture of marketable artifacts, which soon developed the navy, industry and trade, with rapid economic, demographic (and therefore colonial) and cultural: Athens, the cities of Euboea, and those of the Isthmus and Argolis (Megara, Corinth, Sicyon,
In Asia Minor, if the Aeolians occupied themselves preferably with agriculture, and the Dorians were often struggling with the warlike natives, the Ionians, with good lands and good ports, on the routes of trade with the civil peoples of the East, of an adventurous spirit, lovers of trade, they had a flourishing life and a brilliant and precocious civilization with a tendency to orientalism, and their cities, Miletus, Ephesus, Phocaea, Samo, were industrial centers and base for vast colonial and commercial enterprises, in Egypt, in Pontus Eusino, in Italy, in Massalia. The city, of complex origin, of Naucrati in Egypt (there were six Ionian cities, one Aeolian, six Doric, and Aegina), was very flourishing in the period prior to the Persian conquest of Egypt. The Doric peoples (of Laconia and of Tera) settled in Cyrenaica’s
According to sunglassestracker.com, the Ionian and Doric settlers of Sicily (Calcidesi in Nasso, Catania, Leontini, Zancle, Imera; Megaresi in Megara Iblea and Selinunte; Corinzî in Syracuse, Acre, Camarina and Casmene; Rodio-Cretesi in Gela and Agrigento) disposed of fertile land, easily taken to indigenous meek and without reinforcements from the outside, but then found themselves struggling, in the century. VI, with the Phoenicians, or rather with the Carthaginians, who settled in western Sicily (in Mozia, Panormo, Solunto) preventing any further Greek attempt in that area (such as those of the cnidian Pentatlo in 580, and of the Spartan Dorieus in 510 and ff. a. C.). In southern Italy the Ionian settlers (Calcidesi di Regio, Cuma, Naples; Phocians of Elea, etc.) and Dorians (Laconi di Taranto, Achei di Metaponto, Crotone, Sibari, and sub-colonies) succeeded, until around 500, to establish itself with rich and prosperous states; but with the sec. V began their decline, mainly due to the struggles between Greek colonies, to the wave of Sabellic Italic peoples that occupied the whole country from Sannio to the Strait, to the hostilities with the Iapigi of the Apulian area, and to the spread of endemic malaria in the marshy coastal areas.
The Phocians, established in Massalia, exploiting the contrasts between the Ligurians and the Celts, and culturally dominating both, secured the routes and the proceeds of commercial exchanges with the peoples of the north and west, and were able to establish a number of sub-colonies on the Ligurian coasts and Provencal. For a long time, living in the peripheral zone of action of both the Etruscans and the Phoenicians, they peacefully developed their work. The first difficulties with the Etruscans arose when the Phocian settlers tried to establish themselves in Corsica (battle of Aleria around 540), and the first with the Phoenicians when the Phocean settlers became neighboring and competing with them on the Iberian coasts. The settlers, mostly Ionian, who settled on the coasts of the Euxine, had a more economic function than a cultural one, hampered by the climate and by the
The first important unitary, or federal, states. – The first sacral federations that assumed political prestige, arose, as has been said, in the colonial areas of Asia Minor: where, in front of the natives of different customs, language: and religion, and pressing on Greek centers, the colonists of entire areas, which had to lend a hand, were first pushed to recognize their own ethnic unity, and then to federate themselves with sacred and political purposes. But then soon they arose among the Aegean islands, like the one based in Delos; between the maritime cities of the eastern part of the Greek peninsula, such as that of Calauria (which originally included Hermione, Epidaurus, Aegina, Nafplio, Prasie of Laconia, Athens and Orchomenus of Boeotia; and where later Nafplio was replaced by Argos, and Prasie da Lacedemone); and between the cities and peoples of southern Thessaly and neighboring areas: Hellenes (later replaced by the Thessalians), Beoti, Driopi (later called Dorians), Eubeesi (later replaced with the more comprehensive term of Ions), Perrebi, Dolopi, Magneti, Opunzî (later more comprehensively Locresi), Eniani (and Etei), Achaeans, Malî and Phocians. The latter, which originally had its seat in Thermopylae, in the face of the danger deriving for it from the unification of the Thessalian tetrarchies, transplanted itself to the Apollonian temple of Delphi in Phocis.
In fact, the four cantons into which the Thessalian area is naturally divided (Pelasgiotides to the east, Estieotides to the west, Phthiotides to the south and Thessaliotides to the north), after having each become politically unified, formed a political league of four tetrarchies, headed by a τανός o re elective (system that seems to have been conceived in Tessaliotide), in Lominciare from the end of the century. VII. Then from Thessaliotide the tagia passed to Pelasgiotide, in the family of Aleva “the Red”, of Larissa. The Thessalians succeeded in extending their hegemony to the detriment of all the small neighboring peoples and, having entered the amphictyonic league of Thermopylae, they began to lord it over, with the votes of those subject peoples; turning their aims to dominate politically over the other members of the league (Locresi, Phocians, Boeotians, Attics and Eubeesi) of central Greece. It was then that the league moved its headquarters to Delphi. But it was not possible to avoid conflicts, prevent the Thessalians from pre-eminence in the league, nor prevent access to the Athenians and the Dorians of the Peloponnese: thus arose “the sacred war” against the Phocians, of the Eurylochus Alley, allied with Athens and Cleisthenes of Sicyon, and united having won (582 BC) reorganized the Delphic league as Panhellenic (it was from then on that the Athenians participated in it among the Ionians, and the Peloponnesian ones among the Dorians). Thus the influence of the Thessalians made itself felt in central Greece: in which several times they managed, temporarily, to dominate in Phocis, until they were definitively driven out with the battle of Parnassus, around 500.